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3 Signs Of Divorce & Separation From Spouse In Horoscope

Commitment, harmony and love are essential for a happy and successful marriage. When a couple is neither willing to make their relationship work nor they want to live with each other they go for divorce. The reason could be anything, everyday quarrels, not being happy with the relationship, extra marital affair or feeling that the decision of marriage was a mistake. Your horoscope can tell many things about your married life: How will be your married life? Any possibility for divorce or separation from spouse? Possible reason(s) for divorce or separation? This article is focused on analyzing an individual's horoscope for signs of divorce and separation. If you wish to know how will be your relationship/married life with your partner/spouse then you can refer to Most Accurate Method of Matching Horoscopes . The article will help you understand how horoscopes indicate a happy or troubled married life, and how you can find an ideal partner for yourself. If you are a


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Holistic Technology


Holistic Technology


Holistic (holistic technology) is an approach to IT management that is concerned with viewing and treating a complex computer system as a single entity.
Just as a holistic approach to medicine treats each patient as an integrated system and considers how the mind affects the body, a holistic approach to technology focuses on the interdependence of system components.
Holistic approaches include:
o   Systems thinking - a holistic approach to analysis that focuses on the way that a system's constituent parts interrelate, how systems work over time and how they work within the context of even larger systems.
o   Process Centric BPM - a holistic approach to BPM that centers on business processes themselves, rather than individual elements such as documents, workflow or people.  
o   Information governance - a holistic approach to managing corporate information by implementing processes, roles, controls and metrics that treat information as a valuable business asset.
o   Supply chain sustainability - a holistic perspective of supply chain processes and technologies that go beyond the focus of delivery, inventory and traditional views of cost.
o   Enterprise risk management - a holistic approach to planning, organizing, leading, and controlling an organization's activities in order to minimize the effects of risk on capital and earnings.



System Thinking
“System thinking has been defined as an approach to problem solving that attempts to balance holistic thinking and reductionist thinking. By taking the overall system as well as its parts into account systems thinking is designed to avoid potentially contributing to further development of unintended consequences.”

System thinking is a management discipline that concerns an understanding of a system by examining the linkages and interactions between the components that comprise the entirety of that defined system.

The whole system is a systems thinking view of the complete organisation in relation to its environment. It provides a means of understanding, analysing and talking about the design and construction of the organisation as an integrated, complex composition of many interconnected systems (human and non-human) that need to work together for the whole to function successfully.
Whole systems are composed of systems, the basic unit, which comprise several entities (e.g. policies, processes, practices and people) and may be broken down into further sub-systems. Systems may be thought about as having clear external boundaries (closed) or having links with their environment (open). An open systems perspective is the more common and realistic.
The boundaries of a whole system may be chosen and defined at a level suitable for the particular purpose under consideration; e.g. the education system or a complete school system.
Similarly, systems can be chosen and defined at different levels and can operate alongside each other as well as hierarchically; e.g. the finance system, the decision-making system, the accountability system.

An organisation as an entity can suffer systemic failure. This occurs in the whole system or high-level system where there is a failure between and within the system elements that need to work together for overall success.
Factors in systemic failure may include confused goals, weak system-wide understanding, flawed design, individual incentives that encourage loyalty to sub-ordinate (rather than super-ordinate) goals, inadequate feedback, poor cooperation, lack of accountability, etc.
Whole system success requires a performance management system that is pitched above the level of individual systems and their functional leadership. Features may include group or team-level goal-setting, development, incentives, communication, reviews, rewards, accountability. The aim is to focus on what binds individuals together and what binds systems together rather than functional silo performance.
Whole system failure may co-exist alongside functional success. The leadership of silos may individually be successful but not be sufficiently integrated into the whole system owing to a shortcoming of systems design, management or understanding.
A whole system can succeed only through managers collaborating in and across a number of functional systems. The whole system can fail only if leadership at the level of the whole system fails, and where several senior managers are involved. Hence, such failure may be labelled a systemic failure of leadership.

In cases of systemic failure, individual executives who operate at a lower sub-system level may be free of responsibility and blame. They may argue (correctly) that it was the wider system that failed. They may claim that particular systems that integrate with their own work let them down. However, responsibility and accountability for the successful design and running of the (integrated) ‘whole system’ should rest somewhere.
Understanding and anticipating how the whole system is intended to work, actually works, and how it may buckle under pressure, can practically elude and defeat most executives. To avoid censure for this tough challenge, they sometimes seek recourse to the often hollow mantra “lessons will be/have been learned”. They also try to divert attention and reassure investors by referring to a single bad apple (e.g. a ‘rogue trader’), behind which usually lurks a systemic failure.

The leadership challenge is accentuated by the realisation that for every legitimate, official or consciously designed system (which is intended to be and is supposedly rational) there is a shadow system. The shadow system is where all the non-rational issues reside; e.g. politics, trust, hopes, ambitions, greed, favours, power struggles, etc.
The system can confuse, overpower, block, and fail leadership. But leadership can fail the system. A major failure of leadership within, across or down an organisation is referred to as ‘systemic’.

Several ways to think of and define a system include:
·         a system is composed of parts
·         a system is other than the sum of its parts
·         all the parts of a system must be related (directly or indirectly), else there are really two or more distinct systems
·         a system is encapsulated (has a boundary)
·         a system can be nested inside another system
·         a system can overlap with another system
·         a system is bounded in time, but may be intermittently operational
·         a system is bounded in space, though the parts are not necessarily co-located
·         a system receives input from, and sends output into, the wider environment
·         a system consists of processes that transform inputs into outputs
·         a system is autonomous in fulfilling its purpose (a car is not a system. A car with a driver is a system)




The systems thinking approach incorporates several tenets:
·         Interdependence of objects and their attributes – independent elements can never constitute a system
·         Holism  emergent properties not possible to detect by analysis should be possible to define by a holistic approach
·         Goal seeking – systemic interaction must result in some goal or final state
·         Inputs and outputs – in a closed system inputs are determined once and constant; in an open system additional inputs are admitted from the environment
·         Transformation of inputs into outputs – the process by which the goals are obtained
·         Entropy – the amount of disorder or randomness present in any system
·         Regulation – a method of feedback is necessary for the system to operate predictably
·         Hierarchy – complex wholes are made up of smaller subsystems
·         Differentiation – specialized units perform specialized functions
·         Equifinality – alternative ways of attaining the same objectives (convergence)
·         Multifinality – attaining alternative objectives from the same inputs (divergence)

A treatise on systems thinking ought to address many issues including:
·         Encapsulation of a system in space and/or in time
·         Active and passive systems (or structures)
·         Transformation by an activity system of inputs into outputs
·         Persistent and transient systems
·         Evolution, the effects of time passing, the life histories of systems and their parts.
·         Design and designers.
Using the tenet of "multifinality", a supermarket could be considered a:
·         "Profit making system" from the perspective of management and owners
·         "Distribution system" from the perspective of the suppliers
·         "Employment system" from the perspective of employees
·         "Materials supply system" from the perspective of customers
·         "Entertainment system" from the perspective of loiterers
·         "Social system" from the perspective of local residents
·         "Dating system" from the perspective of single customers



Process Centric Business Processing Model
“Process-centric business process management is a holistic approach to BPM that centers on business processes themselves, rather than individual elements such as  documents, workflow or people.”
Business process modelling in systems engineering is the activity of representing processes of an enterprise, so that the current process may be analyzed or improved. BPM is typically performed by business analysts, who provide expertise in the modeling discipline; by subject matter experts, who have specialized knowledge of the processes being modeled; or more commonly by a team comprising both. Alternatively, the process model can be derived directly from events' logs using process mining tools.
The business objective is often to increase process speed or reduce cycle time; to increase quality; or to reduce costs, such as labor, materials, scrap, or capital costs. In practice, a management decision to invest in business process modeling is often motivated by the need to document requirements for an information technology project.

A business model is a framework for creating economic, social, and/or other forms of value. The term 'business model' is thus used for a broad range of informal and formal descriptions to represent core aspects of a business, including purpose, offerings, strategies, infrastructure, organizational structures, trading practices, and operational processes and policies.
In the most basic sense, a business model is the method of doing business by which a company can sustain itself. That is, generate revenue. The business model spells-out how a company makes money by specifying where it is positioned in the value chain.

A business process is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers. There are three main types of business processes:
1.     Management processes, that govern the operation of a system. Typical management processes include corporate governance and strategic management.
2.     Operational processes, that constitute the core business and create the primary value stream. Typical operational processes are purchasing, manufacturing, marketing, and sales.
3.     Supporting processes, that support the core processes. Examples include accounting, recruitment, and technical support.

A business process can be decomposed into several sub-processes, which have their own attributes, but also contribute to achieving the goal of the super-process. The analysis of business processes typically includes the mapping of processes and sub-processes down to activity level. A business process model is a model of one or more business processes, and defines the ways in which operations are carried out to accomplish the intended objectives of an organization. Such a model remains an abstraction and depends on the intended use of the model. It can describe the workflow or the integration between business processes. It can be constructed in multiple levels.

A workflow is a depiction of a sequence of operations, declared as work of a person, of a simple or complex mechanism, of a group of persons, of an organization of staff, or of machines. Workflow may be seen as any abstraction of real work, segregated into workshare, work split or other types of ordering. For control purposes, workflow may be a view of real work under a chosen aspect.

The artifact-centric business process model has emerged as a holistic approach for modeling business processes, as it provides a highly flexible solution to capture operational specifications of business processes. It particularly focuses on describing the data of business processes, known as "artifacts", by characterizing business-relevant data objects, their lifecycles, and related services. The artifact-centric process modelling approach fosters the automation of the business operations and supports the flexibility of the workflow enactment and evolution.

Modeling and simulation functionality allows for pre-execution "what-if" modeling and simulation. Post-execution optimization is available based on the analysis of actual as-performed metrics.
·         Use case diagrams created by Ivar Jacobson, 1992 (integrated in UML)
·         Activity diagrams (also adopted by UML)

Some business process modeling techniques are:
·         Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN)
·         Lifecycle Modeling Language (LML)
·         Extended Business Modeling Language (xBML)
·         Event-driven process chain (EPC)
·         ICAM DEFinition (IDEF0)
·         Unified Modeling Language (UML), extensions for business process such as Eriksson-Penker's
·         Harbarian process modeling (HPM)
BPM suite software provides programming interfaces (web services, application program interfaces (APIs)) which allow enterprise applications to be built to leverage the BPM engine. This component is often referenced as the engine of the BPM suite.
Programming languages that are being introduced for BPM include:
·         XML Process Definition Language (XPDL)
Some vendor-specific languages:
·         Architecture of Integrated Information Systems (ARIS) supports EPC,
·         Java Process Definition Language (JBPM),
Other technologies related to business process modeling include model-driven architecture and service-oriented architecture.

A business reference model is a reference model, concentrating on the functional and organizational aspects of an enterprise, service organization or government agency. In general a reference model is a model of something that embodies the basic goal or idea of something and can then be looked at as a reference for various purposes. A business reference model is a means to describe the business operations of an organization, independent of the organizational structure that perform them. Other types of business reference model can also depict the relationship between the business processes, business functions, and the business area's business reference model. These reference models can be constructed in layers, and offer a foundation for the analysis of service components, technology, data, and performance.
The most familiar business reference model is the Business Reference Model of the US federal government. That model is a function-driven framework for describing the business operations of the federal government independent of the agencies that perform them. The Business Reference Model provides an organized, hierarchical construct for describing the day-to-day business operations of the federal government. While many models exist for describing organizations – organizational charts, location maps, etc. – this model presents the business using a functionally driven approach.

A business model, which may be considered an elaboration of a business process model, typically shows business data and business organizations as well as business processes. By showing business processes and their information flows, a business model allows business stakeholders to define, understand, and validate their business enterprise. The data model part of the business model shows how business information is stored, which is useful for developing software code. See the figure on the right for an example of the interaction between business process models and data models.
Usually a business model is created after conducting an interview, which is part of the business analysis process. The interview consists of a facilitator asking a series of questions to extract information about the subject business process. The interviewer is referred to as a facilitator to emphasize that it is the participants, not the facilitator, who provide the business process information. Although the facilitator should have some knowledge of the subject business process, but this is not as important as the mastery of a pragmatic and rigorous method interviewing business experts. The method is important because for most enterprises a team of facilitators is needed to collect information across the enterprise, and the findings of all the interviewers must be compiled and integrated once completed.

Business models are developed as defining either the current state of the process, in which case the final product is called the "as is" snapshot model, or a concept of what the process should become, resulting in a "to be" model. By comparing and contrasting "as is" and "to be" models the business analysts can determine if the existing business processes and information systems are sound and only need minor modifications, or if reengineering is required to correct problems or improve efficiency. Consequently, business process modeling and subsequent analysis can be used to fundamentally reshape the way an enterprise conducts its operations.

Business process management is a field of management focused on aligning organizations with the wants and needs of clients. It is a holistic management approach that promotes business effectiveness and efficiency while striving for innovation, flexibility and integration with technology. As organizations strive for attainment of their objectives, business process management attempts to continuously improve processes - the process to define, measure and improve your processes – a "process optimization" process.

Business process reengineering (BPR) aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the processes that exist within and across organizations. It examines business processes from a "clean slate" perspective to determine how best to construct them.
Business process reengineering (BPR) began as a private sector technique to help organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their work. A key stimulus for reengineering has been the development and deployment of sophisticated information systems and networks. Leading organizations use this technology to support innovative business processes, rather than refining current ways of doing work.



Information Governance
“Information governance, or IG, is the set of multi-disciplinary structures, policies, procedures, processes and controls implemented to manage information at an enterprise level, supporting an organization's immediate and future regulatory, legal, risk, environmental and operational requirements.”

 Information governance should determine the balance point between two potentially divergent organizational goals: extracting value from information and reducing the potential risk of information. Information governance reduces organizational risk in the fields of compliance, operational transparency, and reducing expenditures associated with e-discovery and litigation response. An organization can establish a consistent and logical framework for employees to handle data through their information governance policies and procedures. 
            Information governance encompasses more than traditional records management. It incorporates information security and protection, compliance, data governance, electronic discovery, risk management, privacy, data storage and archiving, knowledge management, business operations and management, audit, analytics, IT management, master data management, enterprise architecture, business intelligence, big data, data science, and finance.
Records management deals with the creation, retention and storage and disposition of records. A record can either be a physical, tangible object, or digital information such as a database, application data, and e-mail. The lifecycle was historically viewed as the point of creation to the eventual disposal of a record. As data generation exploded in recent decades, and regulations and compliance issues increased, traditional records management failed to keep pace. A more comprehensive platform for managing records and information became necessary to address all phases of the lifecycle, which led to the advent of information governance.

In 2003 the Department of Health in England introduced the concept of broad-based information governance into the National Health Service, publishing version 1 of an online performance assessment tool with supporting guidance. The NHS IG Toolkit[5] is now used by over 30,000 NHS and partner organisations, supported by an e-learning platform with some 650,000 users.
In 2008, ARMA International introduced the Generally Accepted Recordkeeping Principles®, or "The Principles"[6] and the subsequent "The Principles" Information Governance Maturity Model.[7] "The Principles" identify the critical hallmarks of information governance. As such, they apply to all sizes of organizations, in all types of industries, and in both the private and public sectors. Multi-national organizations can also use "The Principles" to establish consistent practices across a variety of business units. ARMA International recognized that a clear statement of "Generally Accepted Recordkeeping Principles" ("The Principles") would guide:
·         CEOs in determining how to protect their organizations in the use of information assets;
·         Legislators in crafting legislation meant to hold organizations accountable; and
·         Records management professionals in designing comprehensive and effective records management programs.
Information governance goes beyond retention and disposition to include privacy, access controls, and other compliance issues. In electronic discovery, or e-discovery, relevant data in the form of electronically stored information is searched for by attorneys and placed on legal hold. IG includes consideration of how this data is held and controlled for e-discovery, and also provides a platform for defensible disposition and compliance. Additionally, metadata often accompanies electronically stored data and can be of great value to the enterprise if stored and managed correctly.

To address retention and disposition, Records Management and Enterprise Content Management applications were developed. Sometimes detached search engines or home-grown policy definition tools were created. These were often employed at a departmental or divisional level; rarely were tools used across the enterprise. While these tools were used to define policies, they lacked the ability to enforce those policies. Monitoring for compliance with policies was increasingly challenging. Since information governance addresses so much more than traditional records management, several software solutions have emerged to include the vast array of issues facing records managers.
Other available tools include:
·         ARMA International Next Level Information Governance Assessment ( Based upon the Generally Accepted Recordkeeping Principles)
·         ARMA Generally Accepted Recordkeeping Principles
·         EDRM Information Governance Reference Model
·         Information Coalition Information Governance Model
·         NHS Information Governance Toolkit
Key to Information Governance are the regulations and laws that help to define corporate policies. Some of these regulations include:
·         The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA
·         Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, or PCI Compliance
·         Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, or HIPAA
·         Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, or GLBA
·         Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002, or Sarbox or SOX



Supply Chain Sustainability
“Supply chain sustainability is a business issue affecting an organization’s supply chain or logistics network in terms of environmental, risk, and waste costs. There is a growing need for integrating environmentally sound choices into supply-chain management.”
Sustainability in the supply chain is increasingly seen among high-level executives as essential to delivering long-term profitability and has replaced monetary cost, value, and speed as the dominant topic of discussion among purchasing and supply professionals.
Supply chains are critical links that connect an organization’s inputs to its outputs. Traditional challenges have included lowering costs, ensuring just-in-time delivery, and shrinking transportation times to allow better reaction to business challenges. However, the increasing environmental costs of these networks and growing consumer pressure for eco-friendly products has led many organizations to look at supply chain sustainability as a new measure of profitable logistics management. This shift is reflected by an understanding that sustainable supply chains frequently mean profitable supply chains.
One of the key requirements of successful sustainable supply chains is collaboration. The practice of collaboration — such as sharing distribution to reduce waste by ensuring that half-empty vehicles do not get sent out and that deliveries to the same address are on the same truck — is not widespread because many companies fear a loss of commercial control by working with others. Investment in alternative modes of transportation — such as use of canals and airships — can play an important role in helping companies reduce the cost and environmental impact of their deliveries.[6] Collaboration platforms are emerging because of the fear of a loss of commercial control and competitive advantage by working closely with other companies.
            Many companies are limited to measuring the sustainability of their own business operations and are unable to extend this evaluation to their suppliers and customers. This makes determining their true environmental costs highly challenging and reduces their ability to remove waste from the supply chains. However much progress has been made in defining supply chain sustainability and benchmarking tools are now available that enable sustainability action plans to be developed and implemented.



In 2008, The Future Laboratory produced a ranking system for the different levels of sustainability being achieved by organization. This was called the Three Tiers of Sustainability:

Tier 1: Getting the basics right

This is the base level and is the stage in which the majority of organizations are at. Companies employ simple measures such as switching lights and PCs off when left idle, recycling paper, and using greener forms of travel with the purpose of reducing the day-to-day carbon footprint. Some companies also employ self-service technologies such as centralized procurement and teleconferencing.

Tier 2: Learning to think sustainably

This is the second level, where companies begin to realize the need to embed sustainability into supply chain operations. Companies tend to achieve this level when they assess their impact across a local range of operations. In terms of the supply chain, this could involve supplier management, product design, manufacturing rationalization, and distribution optimization.

Tier 3: The science of sustainability

The third tier of supply chain sustainability uses auditing and benchmarks to provide a framework for governing sustainable supply chain operations. This gives clarity around the environmental impact of adjustments to supply chain agility, flexibility, and cost in the supply chain network. Moving towards this level means being driven by the current climate (in which companies recognize cost savings through green operations as being significant) as well as pushing emerging regulations and standards at both an industry and governmental level.

Application of Sustainability

Companies looking to implement sustainable strategies down its supply chain should also look upstream. To elaborate, if a company is able to choose between various suppliers, it can for example use its purchasing power to get its suppliers in compliance with its green supply chain standards. In managing suppliers, companies must measure that inputs from suppliers are of high quality, and the usage of water and energy is minimised leading to less pollution, defects and over production. They also must audit their supplier base and make sure that they are improving the supply chain metrics



Enterprise Risk Management
“Enterprise risk management (ERM) is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the activities of an organization in order to minimize the effects of risk on an organization's capital and earnings. Enterprise risk management expands the process to include not just risks associated with accidental losses, but also financial, strategic, operational, and other risks.”
Enterprise risk management in business includes the methods and processes used by organizations to manage risks and seize opportunities related to the achievement of their objectives. ERM provides a framework for risk management, which typically involves identifying particular events or circumstances relevant to the organization's objectives (risks and opportunities), assessing them in terms of likelihood and magnitude of impact, determining a response strategy, and monitoring progress. By identifying and proactively addressing risks and opportunities, business enterprises protect and create value for their stakeholders, including owners, employees, customers, regulators, and society overall.
ERM can also be described as a risk-based approach to managing an enterprise, integrating concepts of internal control, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act, and strategic planning. ERM is evolving to address the needs of various stakeholders, who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations to ensure they are appropriately managed. Regulators and debt rating agencies have increased their scrutiny on the risk management processes of companies.

There are various important ERM frameworks, each of which describes an approach for identifying, analysing, responding to, and monitoring risks and opportunities, within the internal and external environment facing the enterprise. Management selects a risk response strategy for specific risks identified and analysed, which may include:
1.     Avoidance: exiting the activities giving rise to risk
2.     Reduction: taking action to reduce the likelihood or impact related to the risk
3.     Alternative Actions: deciding and considering other feasible steps to minimize risks.
4.     Share or Insure: transferring or sharing a portion of the risk, to finance it
5.     Accept: no action is taken, due to a cost/benefit decision

Monitoring is typically performed by management as part of its internal control activities, such as review of analytical reports or management committee meetings with relevant experts, to understand how the risk response strategy is working and whether the objectives are being achieved.




The risk types and examples include:
·         Hazard risk : Liability torts, Property damage, Natural catastrophe
·         Financial risk : Pricing risk, Asset risk, Currency risk, Liquidity risk
·         Operational risk : Customer satisfaction, Product failure, Integrity, Reputational risk; Internal Poaching; Knowledge drain
·         Strategic risks : Competition, Social trend, Capital availability

The risk management process involves:
1.     Establishing Context: This includes an understanding of the current conditions in which the organization operates on an internal, external and risk management context.
2.     Identifying Risks: This includes the documentation of the material threats to the organization’s achievement of its objectives and the representation of areas that the organization may exploit for competitive advantage.
3.     Quantifying Risks: This includes the calibration and, if possible, creation of probability distributions of outcomes for each material risk.
4.     Integrating Risks: This includes the aggregation of all risk distributions, reflecting correlations and portfolio effects, and the formulation of the results in terms of impact on the organization’s key performance metrics.
5.     Assessing/Prioritizing Risks: This includes the determination of the contribution of each risk to the aggregate risk profile, and appropriate prioritization.
6.     Treating/Exploiting Risks: This includes the development of strategies for controlling and exploiting the various risks.
7.     Monitoring and Reviewing: This includes the continual measurement and monitoring of the risk environment and the performance of the risk management strategies.

The COSO "Enterprise Risk Management-Integrated Framework" published in 2004 defines ERM as a "…process, effected by an entity's board of directors, management, and other personnel, applied in strategy setting and across the enterprise, designed to identify potential events that may affect the entity, and manage risk to be within its risk appetite, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of entity objectives."[4]
The COSO ERM Framework has eight Components and four objectives categories. It is an expansion of the COSO Internal Control-Integrated Framework published in 1992 and amended in 1994. The eight components - additional components highlighted - are:
·         Authority and pledge to the ERM
·         RISK Management policy
·         Mixer of ERM in the institution
·         Risk Assessment
·         Risk Response
·         communication and reporting
·         Information and Communication
·         Monitoring

The four objectives categories - additional components highlighted - are:
·         Strategy - high-level goals, aligned with and supporting the organization's mission
·         Operations - effective and efficient use of resources
·         Financial Reporting - reliability of operational and financial reporting
·         Compliance - compliance with applicable laws and regulations

Goals of an ERM program

Organizations by nature manage risks and have a variety of existing departments or functions ("risk functions") that identify and manage particular risks. However, each risk function varies in capability and how it coordinates with other risk functions. A central goal and challenge of ERM is improving this capability and coordination, while integrating the output to provide a unified picture of risk for stakeholders and improving the organization's ability to manage the risks effectively.

Typical risk functions

The primary risk functions in large corporations that may participate in an ERM program typically include:
·         Strategic planning - identifies external threats and competitive opportunities, along with strategic initiatives to address them
·         Marketing - understands the target customer to ensure product/service alignment with customer requirements
·         Compliance & Ethics - monitors compliance with code of conduct and directs fraud investigations
·         Accounting / Financial compliance - directs the Sarbanes-Oxley Section 302 and 404 assessment, which identifies financial reporting risks
·         Law Department - manages litigation and analyses emerging legal trends that may impact the organization
·         Insurance - ensures the proper insurance coverage for the organization
·         Treasury - ensures cash is sufficient to meet business needs, while managing risk related to commodity pricing or foreign exchange
·         Operational Quality Assurance - verifies operational output is within tolerances
·         Operations management - ensures the business runs day-to-day and that related barriers are surfaced for resolution
·         Credit - ensures any credit provided to customers is appropriate to their ability to pay
·         Customer service - ensures customer complaints are handled promptly and root causes are reported to operations for resolution
·         Internal audit - evaluates the effectiveness of each of the above risk functions and recommends improvements

Common challenges in ERM implementation

Various consulting firms offer suggestions for how to implement an ERM program. Common topics and challenges include:
·         Identifying executive sponsors for ERM.
·         Establishing a common risk language or glossary.
·         Describing the entity's risk appetite (i.e., risks it will and will not take)
·         Identifying and describing the risks in a "risk inventory".
·         Implementing a risk-ranking methodology to prioritize risks within and across functions.
·         Establishing a risk committee and or Chief Risk Officer (CRO) to coordinate certain activities of the risk functions.
·         Establishing ownership for particular risks and responses.
·         Demonstrating the cost-benefit of the risk management effort.
·         Developing action plans to ensure the risks are appropriately managed.
·         Developing consolidated reporting for various stakeholders.
·         Monitoring the results of actions taken to mitigate risk.
·         Ensuring efficient risk coverage by internal auditors, consulting teams, and other evaluating entities.
·         Developing a technical ERM framework that enables secure participation by 3rd parties and remote employees


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Pic Credits: Disha Patani/Twitter Disha Patani is an Indian film actress and model who starred in a Chinese Movie, Kung Fu Yoga. Her first movie was in Telugu and later she starred in M.S. Dhoni - The Untold Story along with Sushant Singh Rajput , an Indian biographical sports film based on the life of former Indian Cricket Team captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni , which was her Bollywood debut movie released in 2016. Before starring into movies, she gained a lot of popularity when she appeared in the Cadbury Dairy Milk ad.

Combinations In The Horoscope That Make A Person Rich (Millionaire OR Billionaire)

This methodology of knowing if a person is meant to become rich is not a theory, it is actually practiced and applied on horoscopes to predict about a person's life and to figure out if a person is meant to become really successful and will become rich in his life. In a horoscope, there are 12 houses and 9 planets (excluding Uranus, Neptune and Pluto). Most astrologers see 1st, 2nd, 5th, 6th, 9th, 10th and 11th house, and their lords to see if a person has the capability to become rich and successful. Some also take the benefic aspects from Jupiter, Venus, Mercury and Moon into account.The actual answer does not come through this way. To accurately know if a person is meant to become rich and successful you need to see these three things: The Person's Intelligence Benevolence of The Planets Support from The Time When these three things combine then a person actually becomes successful. I am sure that you find this very logical.

7 Questions About Your Career Answered

Career astrology is about predicting what would be the status of a person in the world. It indicates how much a person can rise in his life irrespective of how much that person is educated. We always see examples where a person who is not much qualified makes millions. Those are the people having a horoscope which does not support education but making money. Due to which these people become smart enough to make huge sums of money without having a very strong educational background. Career astrology is different from predicting & timing events of life. Either an event will happen in life or not but that’s not the case with the career. If planets support the person will attain heights, if they don’t then the person will live an average life and if they are against then a person leads a miserable life. While doing career astrology it’s important to know what is the role of each & every house and relative importance of every house regarding career.

Understanding Nirayana Bhava Chalit Chart & Its Importance in Prediction Making

On observing this sky from the Earth, we see billions of stars. A group of stars when forms a recognizable pattern, we call it a constellation. There could be uncountable number of constellations in the skies depending upon from where we see it. We see them from the Earth and the astronomers have discovered 88 constellations till now. In astrology, we only use 27 constellations and they form the entire zodiac belt. There are 12 zodiac sign in this zodiac belt and each zodiac sign has a width of 30 degrees. Each zodiac sign is owned by a certain planet and a planet can be present either in its own zodiac sign or in some other zodiac sign. The zodiac sign which a planet occupies depends upon the point of reference, the Earth. Earth is moving around the Sun along with other planets, therefore, the speeds of movement of other planets appear to be changing all the time. This happens due to the relative motion of Earth and the other planet. If we change our point of reference from Ea

How Planets Indicate Depression And Suicide In A Horoscope?

Depression has become a common problem for hundreds of millions of people across the world, it negatively impacts how you feel and a person suffering from depression feels low and loses interest in work or performing any activity. Depression is a serious problem as it not only affects your performance at work and mental health but it is also bad for your relationships and physical health. Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, people are forced to stay at home and millions of people have already lost their jobs. Unemployment and financial problems are some of the major contributors to depression. Depression is like a black hole, once you start falling into it you just keep going and coming back feels really difficult. Let's say difficult relationships often spoil your mood, this affects your performance at work which then becomes a hurdle to achieve your goals, and this further affects your relationships in the future. Some people are better in handling their own feeli

Rashi Chart or Bhava Chalit Chart for Prediction

In Predictive Hindu Astrology , there is a major role of Bhava Chalit chart. While Rashi chart remains same for almost 2 days, Bhava Chalit chart is changing every minute . It calculates in which cusp a planet and a zodiac sign is actually present. The placement of planets in Rashi Chart & in the Ascendant Chart (Main Birth Chart) is same, it is just that the Ascendant chart is rotated till the Moon comes in the first house and we call it Rashi Chart. I personally recommend that you avoid seeing Rashi Chart as the Ascendant Chart gives the most accurate results. Moon is very important and we do take Moon's placement into account by following the time period system that is just based upon Moon & stars. Now, we have to take the placement of other planets into account. The Ascendant chart indicates which planet was transiting in your 10th house (right above your head) or 7th house (western horizon) or any other house at the time when you were born. The zodiac sign in the